Evolution can be WEIRD – Here are some preposterous examples.

Originally posted on Steemit: https://steemit.com/science/@mobbs/evolution-can-be-weird-here-are-some-preposterous-examples

Previously, I showed some strange aspects of evolution, including convergence and ‘stupid design’. But sometimes, what looks pretty stupid actually serves a pretty niche purpose that has allowed the animal to thrive to this day.

Let’s take a look:

Bats that aren’t very batty

In New Zealand, there is a unique group of bats. You know, those flying rats that fly around catching bugs, in the air.
Except these bats don’t much like flying. They much prefer clumsily scuttling around the ground in the forest.


SourceThough it can fly, many believe, given time, these bats will eventually take to the ground permanently and become a kind of half-way transition species.

But why? Food, of course. These bats live in a habitat in which it’s simply more beneficial for them to stop wasting all that energy on flapping their big finger-wings and instead chill out on the ground.

The rise of a symbiosis between the bat and a particularly interesting plant is suggested to be the primary factor. The Dactylanthus, or ‘flower of the underworld’ is a unique, fully parasitic, yet flowering plant that can produce up to a full cup of juicy nectar in its 10-day flowering period. Perfect for these land bats.

In the meantime, the rest of the basketball-sized plant is underground, attaching itself to the roots of its host. It’s so dependent on its host that it doesn’t even photosynthesize, and will die as soon as its host dies.

Goblin Shark


SourceOk, this one freaks me out every time I see it. Just take a look at its hunting methods (about 35 seconds in):

So this ‘primitive’ shark, or as I think we all feel, ‘shark gone wrong’, has a mouth that can literally be thrown out of its face to catch things to compensate for its snout being in the way.

As terrifying as it looks, it’s actually pretty low on the danger spectrum. It feeds on small fish and molluscs, is barely twice the size of a human, can’t swim very well and has terrible eyesight. This explains the weird protruding jaw, since they cannot find prey with hunting prowess, they instead sit around and wait for things to come to them, before lurching forwards in a split second.

But they’re hunted by better sharks with substantial hunting prowess, so they’re kind of like the undergoblins of the sea. Gotta feel bad for ’em.

Duck-billed Platypus

A famous animal in itself, but the devil is in the detail of this adorable… mammal?

When first brought to England, nobody would believe that it was actually a rela animal, and was just a prank – somebody stitching together the bill of a duck, the tail of a beaver and the fur of an otter.

But it’s not just its ridiculous appearance. Platypuses are venomous. This isn’t unique, but it’s definitely surprising. The venom is secreted on a sharp spur on the back of their feet, useful for competing with males in mating season.


SourceThough they have feet, they’re not very accomplished with them on land. The webbing actually retracts when they’re on land, and they waddle around on their knuckles to prevent damaging that extra skin.

Platypuses are monotremes, or mammals that lay eggs. Again, this is not unique, but there are only five living species of mammal that do this, the other four being a variety of anteaters.

Unlike common sense, they only have a single duct for urine, feces and sex instead of multiple openings like real animals.
To make things all the more confusing, the skeleton of a platypus looks very much like a reptile:


SourceWe normally think of mammals being defined as animals that don’t lay eggs, or perhaps don’t have duck beaks, or reptile skeletons, but the main factors that all mammals have are ‘hair, milk, sweat glands, three middle ear bones and a brain region known as the neocortex.’ – three things that platypus succeeds at.

So why do they lay eggs anyway?

The most likely reason is because they took to the water. Millions of years ago, these monotremes were out-competed by marsupials of all kinds, but bearing a live child is bad news if you live in the water, where you would struggle to give them milk without them drowning. That’s not so much a concern with an egg.

While the land-lubber marsupials took over Australia, Platypuses continued to thrive offshore on Tasmania.

Source

Nosey Hummingbirds



SourceHummingbirds in themselves are pretty fascinating, with heart beats as high as 1300 beats per minute, 50 wing flaps per second, and a top speed of over 15 metres/second.

The sword-billed hummingbird is actually a wonderful example of an evolutionary arms race. With a bill longer than its body, life can’t be easy. But is it worth it? Who is the hummingbird racing against?

There are some flowers, such as the Passiflora mixta with particularly long corollas. This means there has to be a very specific symbiosis between animal and plant if they want to get mutual benefits. This is good because not all animals behave the way the flowering plants would like, but making its prize further and further away ensures only the most passionate enthusiasts can seek their reward.

This hummingbird has a beak so long that when resting, it has to tilt its head up in order for it to not fall over. It also has to fly around with its head pointing up, and it can’t even groom itself properly, resorting to a dog-like scratch behind the ears with its feet.

That nectar better be frickin’ tasty.

In this video you can see the extra-long tongue licking away at the feeder:

Giant noses are not unique to hummingbirds, and it seems they are kind of pretty useful in the grand scheme of evolution. Here are some other animals that have developed huge noses for a variety of purposes:

Sawshark


SourceThe saw shark has a huge snout most likely used for advanced detection of prey. Those spines are part of a very sensitive sensory organ.

Sawfish


SourceLike a sawshark, except it’s a fish. Although the sawshark is also a fish so… whatever.

Narwhal


SourceThis ridiculous water-unicorn was a mystery for a while, but there are some sensible observations nowadays. This modified tooth has been seen doing a variety of specific tasks, such as stirring up the sandy ocean floor, fighting, and even slapping fish, rendering them unconscious before gobbling them up.

The tusk can reach 10 feet in length, though they’re often worn down or broken to a smaller size.

Anteaters


SourceAnteaters are pretty well known, but I just find their heads so ludicrous. They have no teeth, and unique stomachs. Whereas most stomachs use hydrochloric acid to help with digestion, the anteaters questionable diet means it’s had to adapt and have formic acid instead.

This diet is generally not great, and anteaters have also adapted to have a lower body temperature than other mammals, at a mere 32.7 degrees C, which helps them use less energy. They also need to sleep 15 hours a day. That gives them 9 hours to constantly slurp up ants before going back to sleep.

What a life.

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Amazing evolution #1 – Convergence

Welcome to the first of a three-part (or more) series about the wonderful world of evolutionI will cover at least three topics without being patronising and going back to basics:

  • Convergent evolution
  • Unintelligent design
  • Artificial evolution

Evolution is one of the most elegant theories ever conjured up, alongside other classics such as F=ma and E=mc^2. Everything from all fields of science, be it biology, genetics, geology or even physics, simply fits in place like a jigsaw piece. Every time. Without fail.

But it seems to get a bad rap anyway. Not everybody believes Darwin like they do Newton and Einstein, and many think evolution is simply SO beautiful that a higher power simply created it all.

Well, yes, it’s often beautiful. I mean, who doesn’t like the occasional tape worm chomping away in their gut?

But to me and millions around the world, the long and arduous journey over billions of years through time and death is far more beautiful and fantastical than a snap of fingers.

I want to show people the limitless nature of nature, and how remarkable it can truly be. Put away your preconceptions of belief, disgust and cute mammalian bias, and let’s dig in.

Convergent EvolutionFirst I will explain how this works, and then I’ll jump into some awesome and sometimes bewildering examples of what is basically glorified coincidence.

FlyingSometimes, life has a good idea, say, wings. But life is not a single entity handing out good ideas to those who deserve it. Life did not give butterflies wings, and then, after hours of begging, finally handed them over to bats. No, these were totally separate good ideas that came about from the same initial ingredients. Birds, bats, MQ-9 Reaper drones, they all came to the same solution through entirely unique processes.

BirdsThere are about 10,000 species of birds that we so far know of, and they come in boring form or splendorous form.


a boring mockingbird
A Splendiferous Greater Bird of Paradise!But if evolution is so true, what use is half a wing? Surely there was a point between the time when there wasn’t a wing and when there was a wing?

Well, yes. According to science, feathers, as well as human hair, evolved from reptile scales. All three are formed from the same part of the embryo of each animal group. They all develop from something called ‘placodes’ – patches of thickened skin.

A dinosaur who developed the mutation of lighter scales and later feathers may benefit from insulation, keeping eggs warm and would also exploit the properties of feathers for aerodynamic escapes, higher jumps or even becoming more virtuoso tree climbers. I’m thinking chickens. Chickens can’t fly but they make good use of those feathers nonetheless.

With escape in mind, you can easily imagine the steady process from higher jumps, leaping from tree to tree before eventually lifting off entirely.

BatsBats are not birds, they’re mammals. There are about 5,500 species of mammals. A bat’s rise to Batman-like abilities came through a different process via mammalian genes. Compare a bird wing to a bat wing:

Nice picture. The most striking thing here is that a bat wing appears to be more finger than anything else, put together with skin like my old school friend’s webbed feet. The bird’s skeleton, on the other hand, made the hand stubbier and extended the actual arm. A bat’s wing is essentially a giant hand.

InsectsInsects are not bats or birds, they’re invertebrates. There are around 1 million types of insects. As we learn in primary school, bugs don’t have skeletons in the way we do, so there’s no skeletal x-rays to be seen. This, combined with the fact that insects don’t fossilize very well makes it very difficult to actually find evidence of the process of acquiring flight.


oh, wait, here’s an insect x-rayThere are theories though, generally looking at how they were developed from insect appendages for balance, hopping around on water and so on. The strongest evidence suggests development from abdominal tracheal gills or similar, as can be seen in this lovely shrimp-like machilis.


Thank you, WigglesworthHere’s the cute version:

OthersSo here we have three distinct processes in which flight has formed. But there are several other examples of animals that seem to be in that very transitional phase, like the ridiculously adorable flying squirrel, which actually glides steadily.

The flying fish, which has been caught on camera flying for a full 45 seconds

Frogs, lemurs, even snakes and lizards are working on taking to the skies!

What we can see is that even distant relatives simply re-use the genetic components provided in our DNA, shuffling them around to better adapt to the environment. There is no new material in a bat’s skeleton or a human or bird skeleton. It’s all just re-proportioned.

SwimmingFish swim. Fish live in water. Dogs can also swim but they usually don’t live in water, because dogs are mammals. Dolphins and whales are mammals too, so why do they live in the sea?

This is a pretty wild evolutionary U-turn which made sea creatures crawl up to land, realize it ain’t all that, and then hop back into the sea where it’s cool and less smoky.

Whales harbour the same skeleton we humans do, reformed to hold bigger, better lungs and a bigger heart. They even have tiny, vestigial legs deep beneath the blubber, and hair across their whole body – at least as babies.


A whale before it made the leap into water… I guessDolphins are wonderful examples of convergent evolution so drastic that they can easily be mistaken for sharks to the untrained eye, a fish millions of years separated from mammals entirely. This is why a dolphin’s tail is horizontal compared to the shark and fish’s vertical tail – They were separate inventions.

Additionally, there are multiple types of river dolphins that survive in fresh water, all of which evolved separately across the world in China, India and the Amazon.

Walking…or notThis is not a snake. It’s a legless lizard. Get your head around that one.

SeeingEyes are the most amazing and intricate little balls of jelly I can currently think of. Eyes are commonly used to argue the existence of God, but a closer look and you see there’s nothing really unique about the process that eyes took to go from ‘no eye’ to ‘eye’.

And this is so true, that eyes also evolved multiple times.

Humans and squids, for example creepily evolved the same eyes using the same genes, separately. In fact, the most recent ancestor of human and squid died out over 500 million years ago.


Actual squid eyeCompound eyes in insects and crustaceans are another example of a solution to blindness. In fact, the mantis shrimp’s eyes are capable of seeing much more than we can. Where we have 3 photoreceptors to pick up red, green and blue light, this shrimp has up to 16 receptors, 6 of which can see into the Ultra-violet range.

…Such a shame their brains aren’t big enough to discriminate between colours anywhere near as good as us, but hey, nice try.

Eyes have formed in their own way at least six times, from the camera eyes of octopuses and humans to the mirror eyes, cup eyes, pinhole eyes and compound eyes of… other… freaks.

CamouflageCamouflage Is a necessity for so, so many animals. It’s no surprise that many animals mimic other animals sharing the same environment. If your neighbor never gets any shit because he’s bald with tattoos and a gun, but you can’t afford that kind of protection on your salary, the cheaper solution is just as effective; shave your head, fake tattoo stickers and a water pistol should suffice.

The same thing goes in the animal kingdom, where plants often mimic each other to ward off threats or, more strangely, attract customers. Sexually.


To a bee, this is a pretty legit mateBut a plant mimicking a plant, or an animal mimicking another animal for the benefit of itself is not convergent evolution. These things happen as a response to external stimuli.

It’s much stranger and more fascinating when you see a whole range of frogs evolve the same appearance around the world, having had no internet to exchange ideas at the time. They all found the same solution to hide from predators and blend into the background.

HearingWe like to hear with our ears. It works pretty well. Echolocation is something else entirely. I mean, it’s not really, it’s a kind of hearing, but a skill we lack, nonetheless (aside from that one blind kid).

Bats and Dolphins both evolved this separately. Scientists in London revealed that ‘200 sets of genes had been identically mutated in dolphins and bats’. The bizarre thing is that not all of those genes were for echolocation. Some were actually linked to vision. Bats that do not use echolocation lack all of these shared genes entirely.

IntelligenceWe normally like to think of intelligence as Us vs. Them in the natural world. We are super smart; they are pretty dumb. Apes are kinda smart I guess, but only because they’re trying to be like us, if Jungle Book taught me anything.

But intelligence comes in many different forms, and the intelligence of some birds expresses that wonderfully.

Crows are considered one of the most intelligent animals out there. They can adapt easily to human intervention, learn tool use quickly and effectively and even show their own ingenuity without training.


Crows have noticeably bigger brains than other birds. In terms of proportion, they are the same as ChimpanzeesSome crows in Japan have been spotted carrying nuts high up to a lamp post, dropping the nuts down to the road below for cars to crush, waiting for traffic lights to turn red and enjoying the easymeal in safety.

Despite having a totally different brain structure, the mental tools shared among primates, dolphins and crows – anticipation and natural reasoning – is otherwise identical. Almost no other animals in nature share these problem solving traits. Other intelligent birds are known to hold grudges – remember specific birds that stole food or annoyed them in some other way, and punishing them later by not providing food sources, for example.

So there you have it, the wonderful world of convergent evolution. I mean, this was barely a scratch on the surface. Just a brief look at the Wikipedia list will make your mind spin with apathy.


…and then someBut I have a habit of writing too much, so hopefully this will inspire people to go on that wiki page and take a look and learn the wonders of how leaves have evolved multiple times, pitcher plants learnt to trap animals the same way, swim bladders evolved in fish and octopuses, different orb-weaving spiders evolved, migrating birds and dolphins have half their brain sleep with the other half awake, some snakes share the same camouflage, opposable thumbs are found in primates, bears and opossums; fingerprints in humans and koalas, prehensile – controllable – tails in mice and monk… Ok I’m done.


High five

Originally posted on Steemit – https://steemit.com/science/@mobbs/amazing-evolution-1-convergence